Wednesday, August 24, 2016

Philosophy 301 Syllabus - Ethics

Course Information

Philosophy 301, Ethics Course
PHIL-301-ON001-2016SP - Fall 2016

Course Description:

This course assists students in examining and analyzing ethical questions raised by social, political, technological and other developments in today’s world and teaches them to apply an understanding of ethical decision-making processes to those questions. Students will receive a general introduction to the history and discipline of ethics and have opportunity to evaluate issues/questions through the lenses of various philosophical positions.

Purpose of the Course:

This study of ethics enables us to discover what brilliant minds have debated and concluded throughout the generations. The greatest minds found opposition to their ideas and this usually led to wider exploration and deeper understanding. Plato believed it is possible to live a good life only if one knows the unchanging and eternal Form (Idea) of Goodness. One of Plato’s students, Aristotle, argued instead that each person must find his/her own “good” and this involves experimentation, and the attempt to find balance in life. Their disagreement became a philosophical tug-of-war between ethical absolutism and ethical egoism. Study of such tensions advances ethical understanding and enables us to think more critically. By studying the history of ethics, we become aware of the ethical questions that philosophers have identified through the centuries, and we develop greater skill in assessing our own times and in shaping our own views. It may not be true that those who ignore history are condemned to repeat it, but in every age it is wise to avoid poor moral choices and their consequences.

By studying ethics we become aware of the complexity of ethical concerns that all people have faced throughout human history. What constitutes right action? Why have humans observed certain moral boundaries for thousands of years? Is morality merely a social construct? Do moral absolutes exist and if they do, are the knowable?

Instructor Information

Alice C. Linsley                                                                                     Phone: 336.809.1696

Textbook Information

Mappes, T. Zembaty, J & DeGrazia, D. (2012). Social Ethics, Morality and social Policy Eighth Edition. New York: McGraw Hill. ISBN: 9780073535883
Wiesel, E. (2006). Night. New York: Hill and Wang. ISBN: 9780374500016

Content & Objectives

Course Objectives

Student Learning Outcomes/Assessments

Student Learning Outcome
Achievement Goal
1.       SLO 1 Demonstrate a general understanding of the history of ethics as well as current philosophies in the area of ethics.
Completion of Matrixes and Final Project
Successfully expressing the basic history of ethics and current ethical trends.
2.       SLO 2 Demonstrate an ability to discuss and debate current issues from a variety of points of view.
Discussion Forum answers and responses. Interacting with the book, Night.
Demonstrate understanding and analysis of opposing points of view concerning ethical issues.
3.       SLO 3 Demonstrate an understanding of worldview, beliefs and values that color arguments on a variety topics/ethical questions. 
Completion of Graded Assignments and Discussion Forum that demonstrate an understanding of contrary worldviews.
Completion of course assignments by using critical thinking/reasoning skills
4.       SLO 4 Practice effective written and oral communication to present reasoned arguments on a variety of topics/ethical questions.
Completion of Matrixes, Discussion Forums and Final Project.
Use of correct grammar, spelling, research and critical thinking skills that demonstrate logic and reason.

Online Learning Environment

This is an online course and therefore there will not be any face-to-face class sessions. All assignments and course interactions will utilize internet technologies.
The course requires you to spend time preparing and completing assignments. A three-credit course requires between 135 – 180 hours of student work. Therefore expect to spend approximately 17 – 20 hours a week preparing for and actively participating in this course.

Accessing Course Website

This course uses Moodle for the facilitation of communications between faculty and students, submission of assignments, and posting of grades. The Midway Moodle course site can be accessed at

Computer Requirements

This course requires that you have access to a computer that can access the internet. Please refer to the technical requirements links on the Moodle home page for exact specifications. However, generally speaking, you will need to have access to, and be able to use, the following software packages:

·         A web browser (Mozilla Firefox is the recommended browser for Moodle)
·         Adobe Acrobat Reader (free)
·         Adobe Flash Player (free)
·         Java (free)
·         Microsoft Office 2013 – Microsoft Word, Excel, and PowerPoint
**You are responsible for having a reliable computer and Internet connection throughout the course. Please understand that lack of computer and Internet connection will not be an acceptable excuse for missing work. You will need to make other arrangements to complete assignments on time if you have technological difficulties.

Email and Internet
You must have an active Midway University e-mail account and access to the Internet. All instructor correspondence will be sent to your Midway e-mail account. Check your Midway email account regularly for course related messages. This course uses Moodle for the facilitation of communications between faculty and students, submission of assignments, and posting of grades.

Technical Support Contact Information
The IT Help link will direct you to a page where you can access technical support for the following:
·         Email
·         Portal
·         Online classes
·         Password help
Please visit the "IT Help" webpage for technical support.

Grading and Assignments

Grading Criteria

Due Date
1. 8 discussions @ 10 points each, graded on both quantity and quality of work
80 Points Possible
Saturday by midnight
2. (7 assignments @ 12 points each)
84 Points Possible
Saturday by midnight
3. Final Paper/Project
36 Points
Monday, October 10 by midnight
Total Points
200 Points

The course consists of 8 lessons and a final paper. There is no opportunity for extra credit.

Grading Scale

Letter Grade
Below 60%

Assignment Guidelines

Upload weekly assignments.  If the Midway system is down, you may submit work to the instructor at this email address:  Label the email with your last name and the week. Examples: Anderson Week 1, Cooper Week 4.

Upload the final 5-page paper. The deadline for the paper is Monday, October 10 by midnight.
Additional resources and background reading may be found by using the Index at Philosophers’ Corner.

Tentative Weekly Schedule

Philosophy 301 consists of 8 readings and/or videos, 8 forum discussions, 8 assignments, and a final 5-page paper. Students will receive a list of approved paper topics from which to choose. That list is available to preview here:

Weekly assignments and participation in the weekly forum discussions should be completed on Saturday of the week assigned.


First Week Academic Attendance Policy

Attendance Policy

This is an online class and the quality of contributions and regular participation activities, including discussion forums, will be considered attendance. Online participation is essential to your satisfactory completion of the course. Viewing weekly materials, presentations, and reading as well as participating in online activities such as lesson activities, forum posts, and blogging is required. All students are expected to ‘attend’ all class sessions. Students are responsible for obtaining assignments for each class and keeping track of any changes throughout the course. If the student is unsure about any assignment or assistance is needed, you can post your question in the “Hallway Conversation” forum so that other classmates may benefit from your inquiry. If the question is of a personal manner or you need further assistance, please contact the instructor. All students are expected to check their Midway University email address daily for online issues in order to participate. Students are expected to actively participate in class discussions on the online discussion board by sharing ideas and experiences. Ideas and experiences should relate to readings, activities, and experiences. Postings to the discussion board at the end or after the weekly timeline are equivalent to missing a face-to face class.


In compliance with the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, Section 504, and the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, professional disability specialists and support staff at the Disability Support Services (DSS) facilitate a comprehensive range of academic support services and accommodations for qualified students with disabilities. DSS staff coordinate transition from high schools and community colleges, in-service training for faculty and staff, resolution of accessibility issues, community outreach, and collaboration between all Midway University personnel regarding disability policies, procedures, and accommodations. It is the responsibility of the student to request accommodations through the ADA procedures of the University found in the catalog and student handbook. Students who wish to request an accommodation for a disability should contact the DSS and their instructors.

Copyright Statement

Please see student handbook. Plagiarism hurts students, and it is easily identified. Please edit and cite your sources.

Late Assignments

Assignments, including postings on discussion threads in online courses are to be completed on time according to the timeline posted by the instructor. It is important to keep up and complete work on time. Late assignments will NOT receive full credit. If you have a reason (other than the excused absence considerations listed below) for turning in your work late, you will be deducted 5% points per day.

Excused absence considerations: 1.) illness of the student or serious illness of a family member of the student’s immediate family; 2.) the death of a member of the student’s immediate family; 3.) trips for member student organizations sponsored by an academic unit and trips for university classes.
If you miss class, it is your responsibility to identify any information needed to complete assignments. For online students, it is your responsibility to review the class discussion for the week within 2 days and add your responses.

Syllabus Change Policy

The instructor views the course syllabus as an educational contract between the instructor and students. Every effort will be made to avoid changing the course schedule but the possibility exists that unforeseen events will make syllabus changes necessary. The instructor reserves the right to make changes to the syllabus as deemed necessary. Students will be notified in a timely manner of any syllabus changes face-to-face, via email or in the course site Announcements. Please remember to check your Midway University email and the course site Announcements often.

Xproctor Information

Midway University requires that proctored online tests must be conducted using Xproctor. See for more information.

Writing Policy

Academic Writing Guidelines
I. Research-based Writing: students will learn to follow the logical progression of research-based composition that emphasizes writing as a process:
a)      Choose viable topics for arguable theses within the scope of the assignment
b)      Locate reference material from academic and scholarly sources (no Wikipedia)
c)       Assess sources for credibility, timeliness, and usefulness to the project (to include annotated bibliography)
d)      Take notes effectively (note cards recommended)
e)      Avoid plagiarism via accurate in-text citation of quote, paraphrase, and summary
f)       Learn and use APA citation methods (may be differentiated by the discipline)
g)      Create the three-point thesis statement (states clearly in one complete sentence the side of the issue being argued, including the main research-backed claims used to explain and support the position)
h)      Organize material to prove thesis (formal outline: T-3-3 Method recommended)
i)        Draft the essay with introduction, main claims and support, and conclusion (multiple drafts required)
j)        Review and revise the essay, including major changes in organization, addition/subtraction of material (via peer review, writing center sessions, and one-on-one professor-student conferences and so forth)
k)      Edit the essay for correct grammar, spelling, punctuation, usage, style
l)        Proofread to correct typographical errors and perfect manuscript format (DS, 12-pt. TNR font, 1” margins)
m)    Turn in the final essay, including: cover, outline, abstract, body (paginated, in-text citations), reference pages—as preferred by the instructor (see instructions above).
II. Writing and Grading Guidelines: all academic essays to be graded using the following guidelines, emphasizing a focus on content, structure, & mechanics:
a)      Compelling introduction to topic and thesis
b)      Clearly stated thesis statement, main points introduced
c)       Main points discussed thoroughly, supported adequately with in-text citation
d)      Smooth, logical transitions between sentences, paragraphs, quotations, ideas
e)      Counter-arguments considered, refuted when possible
f)       Paragraphs well-developed (at least 3 sentences in length), coherent, logical
g)      Logical, well-supported conclusion, ties in with opening but not mere repeat of introduction
a)      Logical and credible evidence backs up each point
b)      Logical fallacies avoided, exposed in counter argument
c)       Proper citation method applied with correct punctuation and format
a)      Appropriate and viable topic, adequately explained and defined
b)      Argument obvious, not mere discussion of information
c)       Discourse logical, meaningful, focused, coherent, and specific
d)      Original thought and critical examination of secondary material obvious and interrelated
a)      Formal, academic voice
b)      Serious and appropriate tone
c)       Third person maintained (first person minimal, when appropriate; no second person used)
d)      Clear awareness of audience
e)      Evidence of individual and independent thinking
a)      Suitable vocabulary (no slang, colloquial, flippant, profane language)
b)      Academic terminology, properly defined
c)       Careful selection of best word
d)      Avoids cliché, redundancies
Mechanics – no serious errors in grammar (gr), punctuation (p, wp), spelling (sp); Standard English usage
a)      Run-on sentences, comma splices (ro, cs)
b)      Fragments (fr)
c)       Subject/verb agreement (agr)
d)      Pronoun/antecedent agreement (vpr = vague pronoun reference)
e)      Tense consistency (t)
f)       Case (c)
Documentation Techniques
a)      Follows APA documentation style throughout
b)      In-text citations, properly punctuated
c)       Demonstrates smooth transitions between quotations and other source material and original discourse
d)      Uses all sources on the Reference page
e)      Lists all references alphabetically, without numeration
f)       Meets required number of sources referenced
Manuscript Format
a)      Double-spaced throughout
b)      12-point font size
c)       Times New Roman font
d)      At least 1” margins all around, no more than 1.5”
e)      Five-space paragraph indentation

f)       Pagination, with identification according to documentation style

Wednesday, August 3, 2016

Philosophy 301 Approved Topics

The final paper is to be 5 pages and is due on Monday, October 10, 2016. There is no flexibility with this deadline as I need time to grade all the papers before the course ends.

Use this outline:
Statement of intention/thesis statement - What you wish to show, demonstrate, prove, expose as false, etc. in this paper
At least 3 supporting observations, explanations, facts, quotations, etc. to support your intention/thesis, each with elaboration.
Conclusion in which you summarize your intention and the supporting points you made. In the conclusion you may include your personal view. Do not include personal viewpoints earlier than the conclusion.

Select a topic from this list:


Tuesday, August 2, 2016

Australia Seeks Legislation on Surrogacy

A government report has backed calls for an international treaty on surrogacy and for uniform legislation within Australia banning commercial surrogacy.

A Senate committee tabled its conclusions this week. In a nutshell, it backs altruistic surrogacy, but not commercial surrogacy. In a society where marriage and the family are changing rapidly, with many children lacking genetic connections with parents, surrogacy can be a solution for infertile couples, it contends.

However, the report left a number of issues in the too-hard basket. They include changing birth certificates to include all people who could qualify as parents – genetic, gestational and intended and making use of commercial surrogates overseas illegal.

Research shows that about 250 children from commercial surrogacy arrangements are brought back to Australia every year. Australia is powerless to stop this, argues the committee. The best the government can do is to give advice about the dangers of offshore arrangements and the possibility of abusing the human rights of the women involved.

Everyone agrees that fundamental principle of surrogacy must be the “best interests of the child”. However, there is a stark division on what those are. Some people told the committee that surrogacy in any form could never be in the best interests of the child because it creates confusion about his or her identity and is inconsistent with the United Nations Convention of the Rights of the Child. Others declared that it could be consistent. The committee sat on the fence.

Another issue is reimbursement for “reasonable expenses” for altruistic surrogates. The committee backed “appropriate reimbursement”.

From here.

Commercial surrogacy is a complicated and controversial topic. Ethical concerns arise on many grounds: the cost of adoption, the welfare of the infant; and the potential for exploitation of poor women.

In India the commercial surrogacy grosses over $1 billion each year. In October 2015, the Indian government announced pending legislation that would ban foreigners from exploiting poor Indian women or traveling to India on what the government called "reproductive tourism."  Read more here: How Commercial Surrogacy Became a Massive International Business

Tuesday, July 26, 2016

The Scourge of Human Traffiking

Written by an Ethics student at Midway University
Midway, Kentucky

Human trafficking in the United States can be reduced and possibly eliminated through education, awareness, and government intervention. Through these means, this illegal form of modern day slavery might finally be stopped.

The illegal trade and exploitation of human beings for forced labor, prostitution, and reproductive favors is termed human trafficking. Human trafficking is a transnational phenomenon and is second only to the international drug trade in relation to organized crime. By some estimates, it is a multi-billion dollar business affecting several million people in virtually every country across the globe. It is equated with a modern day version of slavery (US Department of State, 2011).

Human trafficking has reached epidemic proportions in the United States. The issue of human trafficking has many layers and is complex. Human traffickers can be individuals working for large trafficking networks such as the Chinese, Columbian, Mexican, Russian, Ukrainian, and the United States’ own cartels, or they can be small, one man, mom and pop operators or inner city pimps. A major challenge in human trafficking is data collection. If you cannot measure a problem, you cannot solve the problem. Most law enforcement officials and congressional leaders do not have accurate statistics reflecting the increase in demand trafficked victims. As a result, it is easier for them to sweep the problem under the rug, not lobby Congress for state and federal funding, and be free of the responsibility and accountability to the court of public opinion. Some government officials even claim the problem is vastly exaggerated or does not exist at all (Sarnoff, 2016).

Educating the public about human trafficking is essential to ending this modern day slavery. Everyone is needed to identify it where it hides and bring it to the attention of law enforcement. Misconceptions about human trafficking thwart efforts to stop the practice. One major misconception is the idea that only women can be its victims. Men can also become victims, especially of labor trafficking. Men often have a harder time identifying themselves as trafficking victims and they have access to fewer emergency resources, like safe houses, than women have. Another common misconception is that human trafficking is only sex trafficking. Labor trafficking and domestic servitude are major forms of trafficking. Generally, victims of human trafficking are subjected to force, fraud, or coercion for the purpose of sexual exploitation or forced labor. Identifying victims can be a challenge, especially for the public. However, some indicators that human trafficking is occurring include restricted or controlled communication; signs of fear, anxiety, depression, submission, tension and/or nervousness; not being in control of one's own identification documents; and performing odd tasks at odd hours. Working and living environments also tend to have very poor health and safety conditions, and often have peculiar security precautions such as bars on the windows or being surrounded by barbed wire. Many community members want to help end trafficking, but do not have the tools or resources to do so (Ortiz, 2011).

Awareness is the first step to preventing human trafficking and prosecuting the traffickers is therefore to recognize the complexity of the crime, which cannot be tackled in a vacuum. Anti-trafficking strategies have to be embedded in every policy area, from improving female education in source countries so that girls are less vulnerable to trafficking, to increasing police pay in destination countries so that officers are less susceptible to bribery (Dearnley, 2012).

Government intervention varies—while some countries are creating policies that work for their cultures, others are lagging behind with no counter-trafficking laws at all. There are also some international standards: In 2003, the United Nations Protocol to Prevent, Suppress, and Punish Trafficking in Persons established a universal trafficking definition and set a goal for countries to prevent and combat trafficking and assist victims. The United States Department of State’s Trafficking in Persons Report offers suggestions for nations to comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking. These efforts are challenging, however, as there is no one way to address the variations in trafficking across the world. Differing cultures, economics, and religions all make laws complicated to implement, and corruption, cultural interpretations, and different systems of justice make them even more difficult to enforce. Another thing that should be noted is that many of the laws worldwide focus on sex trafficking as opposed to labor trafficking (which is more widespread), partially because sex trafficking is talked about in the media more (Gulledge, 2015).

The Trafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPA) was authorized in 2000 and was the first federal law to address sex trafficking and labor trafficking in the United States. The TVPA focused on the prevention and protection for trafficking survivors, as well as prosecution for traffickers. The TVPA was reauthorized in 2003, 2005, and 2008 as the Trafficking Victim’s Protection Reauthorization Act (TVPRA), and each reauthorization offered positive changes. For example, the TVPRA of 2008 required the Department of Labor to publish a list of products produced by child labor or forced labor. However, the TVPRA expired in 2011, and is in need of an update to keep up with the rapidly evolving landscape of human trafficking. This year (2016), a bill to reauthorize the TVPRA has been reintroduced to Congress. It holds government contractors accountable for using foreign labor recruiters that use exploited labor, helps law enforcement prevent and prosecute sex tourism, and creates a grant-making program to prevent trafficking in humanitarian crises (such as in the case of Haiti or Syria). On the state level, while there has been vast improvement in some legislation, a few states have a long way to go. Massachusetts, rated one of the most improved states created a Human Trafficking Task Force, which strengthens protections for victims of trafficking and makes using the internet as a trafficking tool a punishable offense. On the other hand, there are states like Wyoming, where until January 29; no state law existed to punish traffickers. The just-passed House Bill 133 adds human trafficking legislation to the law books, and the bill will now go onto the Senate, which is a step in the right direction for the state (Jesionka, 2013).

In conclusion, Human Trafficking may seem too big to tackle, but for the thousands of people caught in this dangerous world, there is hope and ways people can help. Anyone can join the fight against human trafficking. Education, awareness, and government intervention are of utmost importance. Human trafficking awareness training is available for individuals, businesses, first responders, law enforcement, educators, and federal employees. Be a conscientious and informed consumer. Trafficking victims, including undocumented individuals are eligible for services and immigration assistance. Volunteer and support anti-trafficking efforts in your community. 

Be well informed. Provide jobs, internships, skills training, and other opportunities to trafficking survivors. Several organizations are helping victims start new lives. The Living Water Center, which is a safe house and rehabilitation center for human trafficking victims. It also helps survivors graduate from high school and apply for college and/or job placement. Wellspring Living provides a safe house, education, and therapy for underage victims. It also offers independent living programs, which includes continued education and job skills training. 4 Sarah is an intervention program that reaches out to women working in strip clubs and informs them about the risks of the human trafficking industry. Learn the indicators of human trafficking so you can help identify a potential trafficking victim. People are talking, communities are rising, global networks are being forged, and governments are responding to the united message that human trafficking must end. Only with a concerted effort by governments, private companies, non-governmental organizations, and above all communities, can we hope to end the horror of human trafficking.


Dearnley, R. (2012, February 1). UN Chronicle. Retrieved July 24, 2016, from The Magazine of the United Nations,

Gulledge, J. (2015, July 23). Ways to help sex trafficking victims in the U.S. CNN. Retrieved from

Jesionka, N. (2013, February 1). What’s being done to stop human trafficking? Retrieved July 24, 2016, from

Ortiz, D. (2011, March 30). Ending Human Trafficking. Retrieved July 24, 2016, from Opening Doors,

Sarnoff, C. (2016, June 21). Is there an end to child sex trafficking? Retrieved July 24, 2016, from

US Department of State. (2011, February 15). Diplomacy in Action. Retrieved July 24, 2016, from

Thursday, June 30, 2016

Priceless Manuscripts Saved

Timbuktu has become a byword for the farthest corner of the earth. But it was once an important cultural and artistic center

In 2012, jihadists—armed to the teeth with weapons seized in Libya after the fall of Muammar Qaddafi—overran northern Mali and established a brutal, sharia regime in Timbuktu. Once a center of learning and culture, the city housed a priceless collection of manuscripts: volumes of poetry, encyclopedias, and even sexual manuals that invoked the name of Allah. Threatened with destruction, the manuscripts were spirited out of the city to safety in a thrilling, cloak-and-dagger operation.

Speaking from his home in Berlin, Joshua Hammer, a former Newsweek bureau chief in Africa, recounts the tale of The Bad-Ass Librarians of Timbuktu: And Their Race to Save the World’s Most Precious Manuscripts—and explains how the Timbuktu manuscripts disprove the myth that Africa had no literary or historical culture, why Henry Louis Gates had an epiphany when he saw them, and why the jihadists found them so threatening.

In the chaos of the uprising against Qaddafi, the jihadists raided the armories of Libya, took the weapons into Mali, and quickly swept across the northern part of the country, occupying all of the major towns in the north, including Timbuktu. They imposed sharia law and began to destroy every symbol of moderate Sufi Islam that almost all residents of modern Timbuktu subscribe to. Shrines to Sufi saints were destroyed; whippings and amputations were carried out in the public squares of the city; and, of course, the manuscripts were threatened.

Read it all here.

Friday, June 24, 2016

Areas of Ethical Conversation

Philosophy 301 students will find this glossary of Ethics helpful.

Bioethics: concerns the ethical controversies brought about by advances in biology and medicine. Public attention was drawn to these questions by abuses of human subjects in biomedical experiments, especially during the Second World War, but with recent advances in bio-technology, bioethics has become a fast-growing academic and professional area of inquiry. Issues include consideration of cloning, stem cell research, transplant trade, genetically modified food, human genetic engineering, genomics, infertility treatment, etc.

Business Ethics: examines ethical principles and moral or ethical problems that can arise in a business environment. This includes Corporate Social Responsibility, a concept whereby organizations consider the interests of society by taking responsibility for the impact of their activities and operations on customers, employees, shareholders, communities and the environment, over and above the statutory obligation to comply with legislation.

Environmental Ethics: considers the ethical relationship between human beings and the natural environment. It addresses questions like "Should we continue to clear cut forests for the sake of human consumption?", :Should we continue to make gasoline powered vehicles, depleting fossil fuel resources while the technology exists to create zero-emission vehicles?", :What environmental obligations do we need to keep for future generations?", "Is it right for humans to knowingly cause the extinction of a species for the (perceived or real) convenience of humanity?"

Legal Ethics: an ethical code governing the conduct of people engaged in the practice of law. Model rules usually address the client-lawyer relationship, duties of a lawyer as advocate in adversary proceedings, dealings with persons other than clients, law firms and associations, public service, advertising and maintaining the integrity of the profession. Respect of client confidences, truthfulness in statements to others, and professional independence are some of the defining features of legal ethics.

Media Ethics: deals with the specific ethical principles and standards of media in general, including the ethical issues relating to journalism, advertising and marketing, and entertainment media.

Medical Ethics: the study of moral values and judgments as they apply to medicine. Historically, Western medical ethics may be traced to guidelines on the duty of physicians in antiquity, such as the Hippocratic Oath (at its simplest, "to practice and prescribe to the best of my ability for the good of my patients, and to try to avoid harming them"), and early rabbinic, Muslim and Christian teachings. Six of the values that commonly apply to medical ethics discussions are: Beneficence (a practitioner should act in the best interest of the patient, Non-maleficence ("first, do no harm"), Autonomy (the patient has the right to refuse or choose their treatment), Justice (concerning the distribution of scarce health resources, and the decision of who gets what treatment), Dignity (both the patient and the practitioner have the right to dignity), Honesty (truthfulness and respect for the concept of informed consent).
Information Ethics: investigates the ethical issues arising from the development and application of computers and information technologies. It is concerned with issues like the privacy of information, whether artificial agents may be moral, cyber ethics, how to behave in the infosphere, and ownership and copyright problems arising from the creation, collection, recording, distribution, processing, etc, of information.

Virtue Ethics (or Virtue Theory) is an approach to Ethics that emphasizes an individual's character as the key element of ethical thinking, rather than rules about the acts themselves (Deontology) or their consequences (Consequentialism).